Studies & Research
Results in the Lab. Results at home.
The scientific basis for the ARP POV Sport is the positive cellular effects of direct current (DC) electrical fields on these processes. Direct current has been shown to affect cellular migration and orientation, endothelialization, protein synthesis, and calcium regulation. (4,6,7,10,18,19,21,22,24,25)
Direct current electrical fields can modulate a number of factors involved in the stimulus/response. A major process that is affected by direct current is cellular migration and orientation. Cooper and Keller, working with amphibian neural crest cells exposed to a direct current field, demonstrated a migration of cells towards the cathode with a resultant perpendicular cellular orientation. (7) In further studies, Cooper and Schliwa concluded that cell locomotion could be controlled with manipulation of the direct current field. (8) This process, called galvanotaxis, has been demonstrated also in neutrophils, macrophages, and fibroblasts. (10,18,21,22,23)
Intracellular processes are also affected by exposure to direct current. Cheng et al established that relatively low levels of direct current can raise the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level almost 500 % and increase protein synthesis and membrane transport. (6) Bourguignon et al demonstrated an uncapping of insulin receptors on the cell membrane and enhancement of protein and DNA synthesis within the first minute after direct current stimulation. (4)
This was the first study to investigate the potential of the ARP modality as an adjunct to physical therapy in order to achieve superior size and strength of the quadriceps femoris muscle group. We conclude that the ARP modality significantly improves the rehabilitation of the quadriceps femoris in the post-operative period. The data gathered in this pilot study, demonstrates that there is a potential advantage in the use of the ARP modality to restore strength of the quadriceps and retard disuse atrophy. (26)
Platelets also release growth factors that attract monocytes. Monocytes mature into macrophages that become the controlling cells in muscle building. Macrophages continue the process of bacteria phagocytosis and also secrete growth factors that attract and activate fibroblasts.
Fibroblasts proliferate and migrate, and produce a collagen matrix. Concomitantly, endothelial cells migrate to the collagen matrix to produce new blood vessels in this matrix. Granulation tissue is formed composed of fibroblasts, endothelial cells, PMNs, and a collagen matrix.
Direct current can also produce changes in endothelialization. Nannmark et al reported an increased permeability to macromolecules, and changes in capillary permeability to white blood cells with exposure to low levels of direct current. (19) Direct current can affect the migration of endothelial cells in vitro. (24)
The scientific basis for the use of direct current stimulation in recovery has long been established. The clinical problem has been in the application of the direct current without severe discomfort and skin damage. With precise application of an ingenious, patented background waveform, PoV Sport technology allows clinically appropriate levels of direct current to be delivered to tissues safely.